Abbott, A. 2008. Maine Road-Stream Crossing Survey Manual. Gulf of Maine Coastal Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Falmouth, Maine. http://www.fws.gov/northeast/mainefisheries/pdf/MaineStreamCrossingSurveyManual_2012.pdf.
Allendorf, F.W., D. Bayles, D.L. Bottom, K.P. Currens, C.A. Frissell, D. Hankin, J. Lichatowich, W. Nehlsen, P. Trotter, T. Williams. 1997. Prioritizing Pacific salmon stocks for conservation. Conservation Biology 11: 140-152.
Allendorf F.W., and G. Luikart. 2007. Conservation and the genetics of populations. Blackwell Publishing. Malden, Massachusetts.
Armstrong J.D., P.S. Kemp, G.J.A. Kennedy, M. Ladle, and N.J. Milner. 2003. Habitat requirements of Atlantic salmon and brown trout in rivers and streams. Fisheries Research 62: 143-170.
Bardonnet A. and J. Bagliniere. 2000. Freshwater habitat of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57: 497-506.
Bartron M.L., D. Buckley, T. King, M. Kinnison, G. Mackey, T. Sheehan, K. Beland, and J. Marancik. 2006. Captive Broodstock Management Plan for Atlantic salmon at Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery. Report to Maine Atlantic Salmon Technical Advisory Committee.
Baum, E.T. 1997. Maine Atlantic Salmon: A National Treasure. Atlantic Salmon Unlimited. 224 pp.
Beland, K. 1984. Strategic plan for management of Atlantic salmon in the state of Maine. Atlantic Sea Run Salmon Commission. Bangor, Maine.
Chaput, G., C.M. Legault, D.G. Reddin, F. Caron, and P.G. Amiro. 2005. Provision of catch advice taking into account of non-stationarity in productivity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Northwest Atlantic. ICES Journal of Maine Science 62: 131-143.
Collins, M., K. Lucey, B. Lambert, J. Kachmar, J. Turek, E. Hutchins, T. Purinton, and D. Neils. 2007. Stream Barrier Removal Monitoring Guide. Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment. www.gulfofmaine.org/streambarrierremoval.
Cooney, T., M. McClure, C. Baldwin, R. Carmichael, P. Hassemer, P. Howell, D. McCullough, H. Schaller, P. Spruell, C. Petrosky, and F. Utter. 2007. Viability criteria for application to interior Columbia Basin salmonid ESUs. Review draft. Interior Columbia Basin Technical Recovery Team. March 2003.
Cunjak, R.A., T.D. Prowse, and D.L. Parrish. 1998. Atlantic salmon in winter: ‘the season of parr discontent.’ Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55:161-180.
Decola, J.N. 1970. Water quality requirements for Atlantic salmon, U.S. Department of the Interior, Federal Water Quality Administration, Northeast Region, Boston, Massachusetts. 42 pp.
Dolinsek, I.J., P.M. Biron, and J.W.A. Grant. 2007. Assessing the effect of visual isolation on the population density of Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar) using GIS. River Research and Applications 23: 763-774.
Drechler, M., and C. Wissel. 1998. Trade-offs between local and regional scale management of metapopultions. Biological Conservation 83: 31-41.
Dudley, R.W., and G.J. Stewart. 2006. Estimated effects of ground-water withdrawals on streamwater levels of the Pleasant River near Crebo Flats, Maine, July 1 to September 30, 2005. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5268. 14 pp.
Dudley, R.W., L.E. Hay, S.L. Markstrom, and G.A. Hodgkins. 2012. Watershed Scale Response to Climate Change, Cathance Stream Basin, Maine. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2011–3128. 6 pp.
Durbin, A.G., S.W. Nixon, and C.A. Oviatt. 1979. Effects of the spawning migration of the alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus, on freshwater ecosystems. Ecology 60:8-17.
Dutil, J.D., and J.M. Coutu. 1988. Early marine life of Atlantis salmon, Salmo salar, postsmolts in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Fishery Bulletin 86: 197-212.
Egusa, S. 1992. Furunculosos in salmon: Outline. Pp. 159-160 in S. Egusa. Infectious Diseases of Fish [Sakana no Kansensho]. Translated from Japanese edition. Amerind Publishing Co., Private Limited, New Delhi.
Elliott, J.M. 1991. Tolerance and resistance to thermal stress in juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Freshwater Biology 25: 61-70.
Fay, C, M. Bartron, S. Craig, A. Hecht, J. Pruden, R. Saunders, T. Sheehan and J. Trial. 2006. Status review for anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the United States. Report to the National Marine Fisheries Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 294 pp
Ferguson, J.W., R.F. Absolon, T.J. Carlson, and B.P. Sandford. 2006. Evidence of delayed mortality on juvenile pacific salmon passing through turbines at Columbia River dams. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135:139-150.
Francis, R.C., and S.R. Hare. 1994. Decadal-scale regime shifts in the large marine ecosystem of the North-east Pacific: A case for historical science. Fish Oceanography 3:279-291.
Franklin, I.R. 1980. Evolutionary change in small populations. Pp. 135-149 in M.E. Soulé and B.A. Wilcox (Eds.), Conservation Biology: An evolutionary–ecological perspective. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts.
Foster, N.W., and C.G. Atkins. 1869. Second report of the Commissioners of Fisheries of the State of Maine for 1868. Owen and Nash, Printers to the State, Augusta, Maine.
Friedland, K.D., D.G. Reddin, and M. Castonguay. 2003a. Ocean thermal conditions in the post-smolt nursery of North American Atlantic salmon. ICES Journal of Marine Science 60: 343-355.
Friedland, K.D., D.G. Reddin, J.R. McMenemy, and K.F. Drinkwater. 2003b. Multidecadal trends in North American Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stocks and climate trends relevant to juvenile survival. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60: 563-583.
Garner, C., S.M. Coghlan, and J. Zydlewski. 2012. Distribution and abundance of anadromous Sea Lamprey spawners in a fragmented stream: Current status and potential range expansion following barrier removal. Northeastern Naturalist: 19: 99–110.
Gaston, P.B. 1988. Atlantic salmon culture for restoration. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Newton Corner, Massachusetts.
Gee, A.S., N.J. Milner, and R.J. Hemsworth. 1978. The effect of density on mortality in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Journal of Animal Ecology 47:497-505.
Gibson, R.J., Haedrich, R.L., and C.M. Wernerheim. 2005. Loss of fish habitat as a consequence of inappropriately constructed stream crossings. Fisheries 30: 10-17.
Guyette, M., Q. Cynthia, S. Loftin, and J. Zydlewski. 2013. Carcass analog addition enhances juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) growth and condition. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 70: 1-11.
Hanski, I. 2002. Metapopulations of animals in highly fragmented landscapes and population viability analysis. Pp. 86-108 in S.R. Beissinger and D.R. McCullough (Eds.), Population viability analysis. University of Chicago Press.
Hodgkins, G.A., and R.W. Dudley. 2011. Historical summer base flow and stormflow trends for New England rivers. Water Resources Research, 47, W07528, doi:10.1029/2010WR009109.
Hogg, R., S.M. Coghlan, and J. Zydlewski. 2013. Anadromous sea lampreys recolonize a Maine coastal river tributary after dam removal. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 142: 1381-1394.
Holbrook, C.M., M. Kinnison, and J. Zydlewski. 2011. Survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts through the Penobscot River, Maine, USA. A pre-restoration assessment. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 140: 1255-1268.
ICES. 2008. Report of the Working Group on North Atlantic Salmon (WGNAS), 1–10 April 2008, Galway, Ireland. ICES CM 2008/ACOM:18. 233 pp.
Jordan, R.M., and K.F. Beland. 1981. Atlantic salmon spawning and evaluation of natural spawning success. Maine Atlantic Sea Run Salmon Commission. Augusta, Maine.
Juanes F., S. Gephard and K.F. Beland. 2004. Long-term changes in migration timing of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at the southern edge of the species distribution. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61: 2392-2400
King, T.L., S.T. Kalinowski, W.B. Schill, A.P. Spidle, and B.A. Lubinski. 2001. Population structure of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): A range-wide perspective from microsatellite DNA variation. Molecular Ecology 10(4): 807-821.
Klemetsen, A., P.A. Amundsen, J.B. Dempson, B. Jonsson, N. Jonsson, M.F. O’Connell, and E. Mortensen. 2003. Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar (L.), brown trout Salmo trutta (L.), and Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L): A review of aspects of their life histories. Ecology of Freshwater Fish. 12:1-59.
Kocik, J.F., J.P. Hawkes, T.F. Sheehan, P.A. Music, and K.F. Beland. 2009. Assessing estuarine and coastal migration and survival of wild Atlantic salmon smolts from the Narraguagus River, Maine using ultrasonic telemetry. American Fisheries Society Symposium 69: 293-310.
Kunkel, K.E., L. Stevens, S. Stevens, L. Sun, E. Janssen, D. Wuebbles, J. Rennells, A. DeGaetano, and J. Dobson. 2013. Regional climate trends and scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment. Part 1. Climate of the Northeast U.S. U.S. Dept. of Commerce–NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142 -1. January 2013.
Lacroix, G.L., and P. McCurdy. 1996. Migratory behaviour of post-smolt Atlantic salmon during initial stages of seaward migration. Journal of Fish Biology 49:1086-1101.
Lande, R. 1993. Risks of population extinction from demographic and environmental stochasticity and random catastrophes. American Naturalist: 911-927.
Laser, M., and S. Moore. 2010. Maine interagency stream connectivity work group: 2009-2010 (year one) summary and recommendations. A joint report of the Maine Coastal Program, Maine State Planning Office and Bureau of Sea Run Fisheries and Habitat, Maine Department of Marine Resources. Augusta, Maine.
Limburg, K.E., and J.R. Waldman. 2009. Dramatic decline in North Atlantic diadromous fishes. BioScience, 59(11), 955-965.
Long, G.R., M. Colligan, J. Geiger, and M. Laser. 2012. When experts disagree (and better s science won't help much): Using structured deliberations to support endangered species recovery planning. Journal of Environmental Management 105: 30-43.
MASTF (Maine Atlantic Salmon Task Force). 1997. Atlantic salmon conservation plan for seven rivers. State of Maine, Augusta, Maine. 435pp.
Mather, M.E. 1998. The role of context-specific predation in understanding patterns exhibited by anadromous salmon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. Ottawa, Ontario. Vol. 55: 232-246.
McCarthy, I.D., and D.R. Houlihan. 1997. The effect of temperature on protein metabolism in fish: The possible consequences for wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) stocks in Europe as a result of global warming. Pp.51-57 in Global warming: Implications for freshwater and marine fish (C.M. Wood and D.G. McDonald, eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
McCormick, S.D., L.P. Hansen, T.P. Quinn, and R.L. Saunders. 1998. Movement, migration, and smolting of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55(Suppl. 1): 72–92.
McCormick, S.D., D.T. Lerner, M. Monette, K. Nieves-Puigdoller, J. Kelly, and B. Björnsson. 2009. Taking it with you when you go: How perturbations to the freshwater environment, including temperature, dams, and contaminants, affect marine survival of salmon. American Fisheries Society Symposium 69: 195-214.
McClure, M.M., E.E. Holmes, B.L. Sanderson, and C.E. Jordan. 2003. A large-scale, multi-species status assessment: anadromous salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Ecological Applications 13: 964-989.
McLaughlin, E., and A. Knight. 1987. Habitat criteria for Atlantic salmon. Special Report, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Laconia, New Hampshire. 18pp.
McElhany, P., M.H. Ruckelshaus, M.J. Ford, T.C. Wainwright, and E.P. Bjorkstedt. 2000. Viable salmonid populations and the recovery of
evolutionarily significant units. U.S. Dept. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-42,156 p.
McMenemy, J.R. 1995. Survival of Atlantic salmon fry stocked at low density in the West River, Vermont. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 15: 366-374.
MDMR and DIFW. 2009. Operational plan for the restoration of diadromous fishes to the Penobscot River. Available at http://www.penobscotriver.org/assets/MDMR_Operational_Plan_Part_3_of_3_inlcudes_MOU_at_end_-_reduced_file_size.pdf.
Mesa, M.G. 1994. Effects of multiple acute stressors on predator avoidance ability and physiology of juvenile Chinook salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 123: 786-793.
Mills, D. 1971. Salmon and trout: A resource, its ecology, conservation and management. Pp. 91-99 (Disease). St. Martin’s Press, New York.
Mills, K.E., A.J. Pershing, T.F. Sheehan, and D. Mountain. 2013. Climate and ecosystem linkages explain widespread declines in North American Atlantic salmon populations. Global Change Biology 19: 3046-3061.
Moring, J.R. 2005. Recent trends in anadromous fishes. In R. Buchsbaum, J. Pederson, W. E. Robinson (Eds.), The decline of fisheries resources in New England: Evaluating the impact of overfishing, contamination, and habitat degradation. MIT Sea Grant College Program, Cambridge, Massachusetts. MITSG 05-5.
Nislow, K.H., C.L. Folt, and D.L. Parrish. 1999. Favorable foraging locations for age-0 Atlantic salmon: Application to the restoration of populations and habitats. Ecological Applications. 9: 1085-1099.
Nislow, K.H., and B.E. Kyndar. 2009. The role of anadromous sea lamprey in nutrient and material transport between marine and freshwater environments. American Fisheries Society Symposium 69:485-494.
NOAA. 2009. Biological valuation of Atlantic salmon habitat within the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment. National Marine Fisheries Service. Northeast Region. Gloucester, Massachusetts. 99 pp. + appendices.
NOAA. 2009. Endangered and threatened species; designation of critical habitat for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) Gulf of Maine distinct population segment; Final Rule. Federal Register 74 (117): 29300-29341.
NOAA. 2009. Endangered and threateened species; designation of critical habitat for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) Gulf of Maine distinct population segment; Final Rule. Federal Register 74 (117): 39903-39907.
NOAA and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service). 2009. Endangered and threatened species; Determination of endangered status for the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic salmon. Federal Register 74 (117): 29344-29387.
NOAA and USFWS. 1999. Anadromous Atlantic salmon biological review team. Review of the status of anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Anadromous Atlantic Salmon Biological Review Team.
Nylund, A., T. Hovland, K. Hodnel, F. Nilsen, and P. Lovik. 1994. Mechanisms for transmission of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 19: 95-95.
Olafsen, J.A., and R.J. Roberts. 1993. Salmon disease: The microbial ecology of fish aquaculture. Pp. 166-186 in K. Heen, R.L. Monahan, and F. Utter (Eds.), Salmon Aquaculture. Fishing News Books, Oxford.
Palstra, F.P., M.F. O’Connell, and DE Ruzzante. 2009. Age structure, changing demography and effective population size in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Genetics 182: 1233-1249.
Peterson, R.H. 1978. Physical characteristics of Atlantic salmon spawning gravel in some New Brunswick, Canada, streams. Canadian Fisheries.Marine Services Technical Report No. 785: 1-28.
Peterson, R.H., P.G. Daye, and J.L. Metcalfe. 1980. Inhibition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) hatching at low pH. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37: 770-774.
Quinn, T.P., and N.P. Peterson. 1996. The influence of habitat complexity and fish size on over-winter survival and growth of individually marked juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Big Beef Creek, Washington. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53: 1555.1564.
Reddin, D.G. 1985. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) on and east of Grand Bank. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Science 6: 157-164.
Reed, D.H., and R. Frankham. 2003. Correlation between fitness and genetic diversity. Conservation Biology 17: 230-237.
Reed, D.H., J.J. O’Grady, B.W. Brook, J.D. Ballou, and R. Frankham. 2003. Estimates of minimum viable population sizes for vertebrates and factors influencing those estimates. Biological Conservation 113: 23-34.
Reid, S.D., D.G. McDonald, and C.M. Wood. 1997. Pp. 325-339 in C.M. Wood and D.G. McDonald (Eds.), Interactive effects of temperature and pollutant stress. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Reid, S.D., T.K. Linton, J.J. Dockray, D.G. McDonald, and C.M. Wood. 1998. Effects of chronic sublethal ammonia and simulated summer global warming scenario: Protein synthesis in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55: 1534-1544.
Robinson, B.S., G.L. Jacobson, M.G. Yates, A.E. Spiess, and E.R. Cowie. 2009. Atlantic salmon, archaeology and climate change in New England. Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 2184-2191.
Ryman, N., R. Baccus, C. Reuterwall, and M.H. Smith. 1981. Effective population size, generation interval, and potential loss of genetic variability in game species under different hunting regimes. Oikos 36:257-266.
Ryman, N., and L. Laikre. 1991. Effects of supportive breeding on the genetically effective population size. Conservation Biology 5:325-329.
Saunders, R., M.A. Hachey, and C.W. Fay. 2006. Maine diadromous fish community: Past, present, and implications for Atlantic salmon recovery. Fisheries 31: 537-547.
SEI (Sustainable Ecosystems Institute). 2007. Review of Atlantis salmon hatchery protocols, production, and product assessment. Portland, Oregon. 63 pp.
Shepard, S.L. 1991. Report on radio telemetry investigations of Atlantic salmon smoltmigration in the Penobscot River. Proceedings of the Atlantic salmon workshop, Rockport, Maine. March 6-7, 1991. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Pp. 101-108.
Solazzi M.F., T.E. Nickelson, S.L. Johnson, and J.D. Rodgers. 2000. Effects of increasing winter rearing habitat on abundance of salmonids in two coastal Oregon streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57: 906–914.
Somero, G.N., and G.E. Hofmann. 1997. Global warming: implication for freshwater and marine fish. Society for Experimental Biology. Seminar Series. No. 61, pp. 1-24.
Soulé, M.E. 1987. Viable populations for conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Spidle, A.P., S.T. Kalinowski, B.A. Lubinski, D.L. Perkins, K.F. Beland, J.F. Kocik, and T.L. King. 2003. Population structure of Atlantic salmon in Maine with reference to populations from Atlantic Canada. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 132:196-209.
Stefansson, S.O., T.H. Bjornsson, K. Sundell, G. Nyhammer, and S.D. McCormick. 2003. Physiological characteristics of wild Atlantic salmon post-smolts during estuarine and coastal migrations. Journal of Fish Biology 63: 942-955.
Sweka, J.A., M.L. Bartron, J. Trial, and P. Christman. 2007. Assessment of watershed scale habitat features on the survival of juvenile Atlantic salmon. NFWF Project Number: 2003-0118-028.
Sweka, J.A., and G. Mackey. 2010. A functional relationship between watershed size and Atlantic salmon parr density. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 1: 3–10.
Symons, P., and M. Heland. 1978. Stream habitats and behavioral interactions of underyearling and yearling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 35: 175-183.
Thomas, C.D. 1990. What do real population dynamics tell us about minimum viable population size? Conservation Biology 4: 324-327.
Traill, L., B. Brook, R. Frankham, and C. Bradshaw. 2009. Pragmatic population viability targets in a rapidly changing world. Biological Conservation: 28-34.
Tytler, P., J.E. Thorpe, and W.M. Shearer. 1978. Ultrasonic tracking of the movements of Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar L.) in the estuaries of two Scottish rivers. Journal of Fish Biology 12: 575–586.
USASAC (U.S. Atlantic Salmon Assessment Committee). 2012. Annual Report of the U.S. Atlantic Salmon Assessment Committee. 2011/24. USASAC, Woodshole, Massachusetts.
Van Der Kraak, G., and N.W. Pankhurst. 1997. Temperature effects on the reproductive performance of fish. Pp. 159-176 in C.M. Wood and D.G. McDonald (Eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Wainwright, T.C., and R.S. Waples. 1998. Prioritizing Pacific salmon stocks for conservation: Response to Allendorf et al. Conservation Biology 12: 1144-1147.
Waples, R.S. 2002. Effective size of fluctuating salmon populations. Genetics 161: 783-791.
Waples, R.S. 1998. Separating the wheat from the chaff: Patterns of genetic differentiation in high gene flow species. Journal of Heredity 89: 438-450.
Warner, K., and K.A. Havey. 1985. The landlocked salmon in Maine. Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife, Augusta, Maine.
Wright, J., J. Sweka, A. Abbott, and T. Trinko. 2008. GIS-Based Atlantic salmon habitat model. Appendix C of Critical habitat rule for GOM DPS for Atlantic salmon (74 FR 29300).
Zydlewski, J., G. Zydlewski, and R.G. Danner. 2010. Descaling injury impairs the osmoregulatory ability of Atlantic salmon smolts entering seawater. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138:129-136.